Forensic Analysis. Questioned document examinations involve a comparison of the document, or aspects of the document, to a set of known standards (i.e., authentic specimens). Identify or eliminate persons as the source of handwriting, Identify or eliminate the source of typewriting or other impression, marks, or relative evidence, and. Tracing paper may be placed over the genuine writing or a light box may be used to illuminate the underlying writing so that the overlying paper may be traced upon. The goal of ABFDE is to advance forensic science and provided certification in forensic document examination. “Documents” may be defined broadly as being any material bearing marks, signs or symbols intended … Good sources witnesses writing specimens examination include items forensic as cancelled checks, letters, diaries, science receipts, medical expert, real estate contracts, tax records or other signed legal documents. Questioned document examination is a forensic science discipline in which documents called into question in the legal system are evaluated by a trained examiner. Research has also found that faxes may undergo significant dimensional changes that can result in changes in size or even distortion, further complicating the investigation of transmitted questioned documents. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. It should be noted that handwriting identification or examination is distinct from “handwriting analysis” (graphology), which attempts to predict character traits from handwriting examination. SWGDOC began in 1997, and is composed of private examiners and forensic laboratories throughout the United States. Adobe Photoshop® or similar software may be used to assess line orientation and spacing, which may be particularly useful in helping to identify anomalies or distortions in the text. However, expert forensic examiners are trained to be able to accurately discriminate between natural variations in an individual’s handwriting and significant differences indicating different writers. Environmental Science and Research (ESR) is a crown research institute. Forensic examiners are often required to evaluate the authenticity of an individual’s signature, particularly in the case of contested wills or other legal documents. Contact Address: FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY. Regula Baltija LLC the largest producer of expert products for the authentication of documents, banknotes and securities. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. They prepare a detailed report about the methods and process of the document examination. Establish genuineness or non-genuineness, or to expose forgery, or to reveal alterations, additions or deletions. “Documents” may be defined broadly as being any material bearing marks, signs or symbols intended to convey a message or meaning to someone. The Forensic Science Regulator ensures that the provision of forensic science services across the criminal justice system is subject to an appropriate regime of scientific quality standards. The essence of forensic science examinations is the determination of the significance of analytical results, so this aspect of forensic reports and expert testimony is covered in depth, and students are taught best practices throughout. a legal entity, registration No 41503036161, founded in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Latvia, Registered address: LV-5404, the city of Daugavpils, 97 A. Pumpura Street, Latvia (A.Pumpura iela 97, Daugavpils, Latvia, LV-5404) contact information: firstname.lastname@example.org. These may be manufacturing defects, such as defective die material, distortion, or misalignment, or may be a result of use (e.g., accumulated ink, dirt, or fibers) or misuse. It should be understood that questioned documents is a valid and legitimate field of study as a discipline in forensic examinations and identification. Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer, D-ABFE, CFC, was recently engaged in an investigation where he was tasked with verifying the authenticity of a business document. It serves as the largest and most prestigious certifying board for forensic document examiners. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer D-ABFE, CFC, discusses some of the methods used by identity thieves to acquire personal data and strategies that individuals can use to guard against identity theft. There are two internationally recognized programs that accredit forensic laboratories: The American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors Laboratory Accreditation Board and ASI-ASQ National Accreditation Board/FQS. Further destructive testing may also be necessary to discriminate among ink types. This is particularly important for teenagers and the elderly, whose writing may evidence notable changes due to maturation, or distortions due to age or illness, respectively. Once these factors have been established, the investigator can turn his or her attention to an examination of the typography, formatting, and copy distortion. Mark conducts document analysis involving a wide range of cases stemming from various industries. The primary purpose of the examination is to provide evidence about suspicious or questioned documents using a variety of scientific principles and methods. This can be done with vary degrees of sophistication and success. Forensic document examinations should be conducted by a Forensic Document Examiner (FDE or “Document Examiner”). Class-leading instruments for the authentication of questioned documents. Despite this division, it is important to establish and maintain good communication between the two service providers. Questioned material science consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. Mark is a former FBI Special Agent and FBI Forensic Examiner, where he served as part of the FBI’s ERT/RDT teams. Forensic Document Examiner (FDE), Questioned Document Examiner, Document Analyst, Document Examiner, and Handwriting Expert are all titles applied to practitioners. toxicology and … Patching occurs when the writer notices an error made in their writing, such as not fully closing a letter or omitting an embellishment characteristic of the original, and corrects these errors after writing the letter or word. This may be particularly salient in the case of forgeries; for example, it may be discovered that the ink on a document is much too new for its purported age. A large number of impressions should then be taken with the suspected stamp, taking care to vary the angle and pressure with which the stamp is applied, as it is unknown how the suspect applied the stamp. He provides relevant data on the scope of the problem and outlines his involvement in two such cases. A new 3-Dimensional imaging feature for the VSC8000 enables document examiners to derive a 3D model of a documents surface topography in order to better analyse security features, pen-tip strokes and other impressions in paper. The FSL is divided into five (5) main sections namely Chemistry/Drugs Analysis, Document Examination, Photography, DNA and Ballistics/Firearms. Although this is a fairly crude and obvious way to alter a document, it may fall to the forensic examiner to attempt to decipher what was obscured. Chemistry. However, in comparison to typewriters, it is rarely possible to link the questioned document back to the specific computer on which it was written. The inks can expert compared to the International Ink Library, a database inks inks the U. Learn unit 2 forensic science with free interactive flashcards. Questioned material science consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. Collection kits and supplies. Further testing may involve the examination of ultraviolet characteristics and comparisons using instrumental analyses. History Thus, forensic document examiners may use magnification, usually 20-40X, to better identify pen lifts and breaks, which is more often found in simulated writing, as compared to natural writing. Whenever possible, the examiner should attempt to compare the questioned impression to the stamp that is suspected of making it. BOX 505. FORENSIC ANALYSIS Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems or proceedings. Witnesses Service and the German Federal Inks, maintain larger databases. In some circumstances, graffiti and document fine may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence tuned be problematic. Using this technique, indented impressions have been recovered from up to seven layers of paper beneath the original writings. To maintain dating in good standing and keep their skills current, inks are required to the continuing education. FSR-G-212 Guidance for the assessment, collection and recording of forensic science related evidence in sexual assault examinations PDF , 687KB , 85 pages Details The color of a piece or pieces of paper may be compared against a white standard or through a side-by-side comparison. Forensic Document Examiners need to precisely record every step of the forensic document examination. He discusses the steps that a forensic document examiner follows, including analysis, comparison, and evaluation. Explore Forensic Science 3-Day Summer Camp provides students three full days of hands-on, investigative science from a biblical worldview. Indented impressions occur when an imprint is left on the paper(s) underlying the one that was forcibly written or marked upon. Simulated writing occurs when an individual attempts to copy the handwriting of another by making a freehanded drawing of the writing or by tracing authentic writing. An individual attempting free-handed simulation of writing strives for both accuracy of shape and proportion, and fluency of line; however, it is nearly impossible to achieve both. Write reports or give testimony, when needed, to aid the users of the examiner’s services in understanding the examiner’s findings. Next, it should be established whether the questioned document is an original or a reproduction, and whether there were multiple printing methods involved in the creation of the document (e.g., a printed document that was then photocopied and/or faxed). Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), etc. Determining the origin of the ink on a document may be especially useful in helping examiners to detect fraudulent entries or alterations in a document. A side-by-side comparison can then be conducted with the questioned impression, and conclusions as to the source of the impression may be made. The unit is under the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) of the Ghana Police Service. These may indicate that an unnatural writing process e. For example, if a person writes an effect dating of signatures, each one will vary slightly. If an agency does not have questioned documents analysis capabilities, investigators may dating to send the evidence to a nearby lab, or forensic a private examiner. Many physical forces may accidentally kill people and there are many motivations for causing non-accidental injury and death. Finally, paper fiber analysis is a destructive technique that allows examiners to identify the type and quantity of fibers involved as a result of the pulping process. ACCRA . Rank: PO5 / Principal Document Examiner. Maintaining a style of handwriting different from one’s own requires a great deal of attention, which also may result in greater pen pressure and an awkward pen position. Infrared or ultraviolet examination also may allow the examiner to differentiate between different types of ink. Covering specialist techniques that can be employed in the examination of secure documents, this unit could be applied in, but is not limited to, the following workplaces; police services, border security agencies, security organisations, assessing councils, investigation units and financial organisations. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics offers wage information for the broad category of forensic science technicians, which includes forensic documents … This document is a letter that Mark Songer received from a client, thanking him for the impressive work he did in verifying the authenticity of living trust document. The most commonly used EDD is the electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA), which uses an electrostatic charge and toner to visualize areas of indented writing that may have been left by erasures or pressure from writing on top of the document in question. Questioned document casework experience in a laboratory accredited to ISO-17025. He also provides a brief example, comparing two handwriting samples, drawing attention to some of the key differences that a handwriting analyst may utilize in his analysis. : After successful Forensic Analysis of your documents, We will dispatch you ‘Forensic Examination Report or Expert Opinion’ by Speed Post, Registered Post, Priority Mail, Through Messenger or Direct … Forensic Document Examiners (FDEs), often referred to as handwriting experts, handwriting analysts, or forgery experts, examine documents to determine their genuineness, source, content, or age.While the majority of the work involves the examination and comparison of signatures and handwriting, many cases are multi-faceted and require the examiner to compare inks, process … Forensic document inks fine work as science inks within their own maybe, or for publicly funded laboratories. Membership requirements the these associations vary; however, an examiner typically must have completed a two-year, full-time training program under the guidance of a qualified inks document examiner. “Patching” is another error that occurs more frequently in simulated writing. FORENSIC DOCUMENT UNIT TEST METHODS . -Document Examination Unit-Photography Unit -Toxicology Unit-Latent Fingerprint Unit-Polygraph Unit-Voiceprint Analysis Unit -Evidence-Collection Unit. © 2020 Day By Day Cartoon All Rights Reserved. Any examination involving typewriting should include an evaluation of the class of typewriter, horizontal spacing, typestyle and make and model, and individual characteristics and defects. Examiners’ findings should reflect their systematic compilation and evaluation of all of the observed physical facts, in light of the basic rules of identification and their own experience. B) Document examination unit _____ A white powder that is suspected of being cocaine C) Firearms unit _____ Take a photograph of physical evidence at crime scene. A typical Questioned Documents unit in a crime laboratory effect equipped with dating, digital imaging the, infrared and ultraviolet light sources, video analysis tools and specialized equipment including electrostatic effect devices EDD and materials to perform analytical chemistry. Stamp classification is based on the location of the ink source rather than the type of die material and there are four main classifications of conventional stamps: the pre-inked stamp, the flat-die stamp, the hand stamp, and the self-inking stamp. Document examiners are often called upon not only to identify the type of ink involved in a questioned document, but also the source of the ink. These identifying characteristics do not always offer definitive proof that a document has been altered or tampered with, but in some cases may show conclusively that a document is not authentic. For more information about the Questioned Documents Unit, call or write: The relatively poor quality of faxes and photocopies, in comparison to the original document, means that they may be particularly susceptible to manipulations or alterations for fraudulent purposes. In addition to noting uneven margins and crowding, the investigator should use a microscope to evaluate irregularities in the ink and paper, and any other potential anomalies throughout the document. Document examiners are often also required to testify in the court if the case involves a documentary evidence. Forensic Document Examination (FDE) is a forensic science discipline in which expert examiners evaluate documents disputed in the legal system. Forensic Document Examiners Official Formation The ABFDE’s stated objectives are two‐fold: to establish, maintain and enhance standards of 1977 1956 qualification for those who practice forensic document examination, and to certify applicants who comply with ABFDE requirements for this expertise. ... – Forensic Science Standards Board: March 2015. Forensic document examination is the application of science and analytical techniques to cases involving questioned documents. A: Forensic Science is the application of science to the criminal justice system. The ABFDE requires that examiners obtain a minimum of a baccalaureate degree and complete a two-year, full-time training program or apprenticeship in a recognized forensic laboratory or with an established examiner in private practice. Typical strategies employed when someone is attempting to disguise their handwriting include changing the slope of the writing or lengthening the terminal strokes and adding curves or other embellishments. Key issues. We will provide you Court acceptable Expert Opinions / Forensic Reports and Our Expert will visit respective court for cross examination & scientific expert presentation, if required : FORENSIC DOCUMENT & FINGERPRINT CASES : When faced with a computer-generated document, the investigator first attempts to classify the printing process by identifying the printing technology. Non-destructive examinations, such as visual, microscopic, ultraviolet, and infrared tests are usually the first step taken in an effort to identify the class of ink used on a document. For example, it may be the case that a page is substituted in a will that is printed on paper or with ink that was not available at the time of the original signing. Contact Address: FORENSIC SCIENCE LABORATORY. Firearms and toolmarks. Some fax machines also allow the user to reprogram certain formatting characteristics, which may make it more difficult to accurately discern the make and model of the source machine. Forensic examiners also evaluate paper documents for internal or surface weaves. Indented impressions may be called into evidence in legal cases in order to connect evidence; for example, tying a ransom note to a notepad found in the suspected kidnapper’s home. In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer discusses the role of document examiners within the context of construction disputes. Research. It is where scientists use techniques and knowledge from these sciences to study criminal acts, including using science to help determine who committed a crime. This causes the toner used in the EDD to be attracted to these areas, revealing indentations that are present. P.O. However, there will likely be evidence of laborious production, such as signs of uneven pen pressure, pen lifts, and poor line quality. Individuals also will display minor variation in their signatures across documents, so forensic standards indicate that investigators obtain 20-30 repetitions of signatures, 15-20 repetitions of bank checks, and 3-4 repetitions of entire written documents for comparison purposes. These accrediting programs ensure that forensic laboratories meet established quality standards, and employ expert forensic investigators. Gregg M. Mokrzycki Document Analyst-Forensic Examiner Questioned Documents Unit Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, DC. Another way to trace writing is to place carbon paper on top of the original document so that the pressure of the pen will produce a carbon impression upon the lower document. It may be obvious that a line was inserted, for example, if it is crudely written in the margins or between lines of text. In this technique, a small cutting from the questioned document is dissolved in a solvent and analyzed. The presence of any document … DETECT FAKE AND COUNTERFEIT DOCUMENTS. The unit is under the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) of the Ghana Police Service. Other Forensic Science Services. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT. Optional services. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) publishes standards for methods and procedures used by Forensic Document Examiners. As compared to a freehand copy, tracing a signature often results in a very close approximation of the original; in fact, they may provide a more exact copy of a signature than would normally be found due to natural variations in handwriting. Careful examination of computer printouts may allow examiners to determine the type of printer utilized; it is possible that some gross mechanical deficiency unique to a particular printer reveals individualized defects that allow the printout to be traced back to the specific machine. In the context of crime scene investigation, questioned document examination consists of examining writing, printing, ink, paper, impressions, typewriting, typewriters, and other sources to determine whether a questioned document is genuine. When possible, it is best to provide the examiner with any suspected devices associated with the questioned document fine may have been involved in its preparation. Effective forensic document examination may be hampered if there is an insufficient quantity of questioned material or if the evidence is of insufficient quality. When examining seals and stamps, it is important that the forensic examiner first determine that the marking(s) were indeed caused by a seal or stamp, as opposed to being computer generated. Forensic Science and Law enforcement. This unit requires knowledge of the industry’s quality and accreditation requirements as well as codes of ethics and their application to practice. In this document, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer, provides an introduction to the science of forensic handwriting analysis. However, this information should be evaluated cautiously, as the TTI is programmable and therefore subject to alteration by a sophisticated perpetrator. The use of an IR imaging system may be useful in helping examiners to differentiate the original writing from the covering material as well. Develop an awareness of the application of laboratory examination methods in forensic science, enabling practical application of relevant techniques to casework problems. Watermarks also may be useful to examiners as a means of identifying the type of paper, manufacturer, and date of production. Familiarity with instrumentation to include: Microscopes; Electrostatic Detection Devises (e.g., Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), etc. This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge to ensure that examiners apply current standards of quality practice and ethical behaviour in a forensic examination setting. This is one of the few destructive techniques employed by the document examiner. These additions or alterations also may become visible under magnification. The techniques and tools fine in forensic document examinations leverage well-established principles of maybe and chemistry. For more information contact Mark Songer. of services of the document examination unit. Qualifications: It is sometimes possible to remove the obliterating material using an ordinary rubber eraser, chemical solvent or scraping off the overlying layer, although pains must be taken not to damage the underlying writing. Requested specimens are writings dictated by examination investigator to the writer. Advances in Document Examination: The Video Spectral Comparator 2000 . Forensic imaging has another major application: documentation of injury (Levy and Harcke, 2011). Peer group testing is also available through the American Society of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE) and the Forensic Science Society (FSS). Forensic Document Examiner. Highly specialized forensic examination and analysis are conducted in the following areas: Biology . It is recommended that, in addition to a visual inspection of the front and back of the paper, the examiner use a scalpel to examine the internal color of the paper, as this may vary through the process of printing. Surface weaves are uncommon but are easily visualized with side lighting. When comparing handwriting from collected specimens, however, it is important to collect contemporaneous writing, or material that was written around the same time period as the document in question. Lack of fluency in execution and inconsistency of form are characteristic of disguised handwriting. Science and Environment; Forensics; Forensic Identification (Document Examination) Overview. Additional information on the forensic examination of questioned documents, shoeprints, and tire treads is available in the Questioned Documents Examinations and the Shoeprints and Tire Treads Examinations sections of the Handbook of Forensic Services. Handwriting samples may be divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens. Mark Songer D-ABFE, CFC Document dating in forensic science. It is not to be confused with “graphologists” or “grapho-analysts” who claim the ability to access personality traits of a person from their handwriting. Imaging instruments such as a video spectral comparator (VSC) also can reveal writing that has been added to alter or augment the original writing on questioned documents. Handwriting Expert is not completely accurate because the work involves more diverse examinations … Witnesses addition, examiners look for features such as hesitations in the natural flow of writing, possible retouching or unnatural tremors. 1 Craig Coppock, Universal Definition of ACE-V Updated, 6-19-2012. In this case Mark was retained to perform a Questioned Document Examination (QDE). The article highlights examples of “cut and paste” forgeries and provides background into the processes and techniques utilized as part of the investigation. In addition to determining the type of printer that created the questioned document, the typeface itself should be scrutinized. Some forgers also may choose to draw a signature upside down, in which case it may be evident that the directionality of the line is incorrect. Among non-accidental injuries, gunshot wounds, knife wounds, and various forms of … Technical information sheets. The TTI includes information such as the sender’s name and fax number, the recipient’s fax number, and the date and time of transmission. We will drive innovation across the organization and deliver forensic science services that anticipate the needs of public safety. Finally, as with any technology, fax machines are susceptible to manufacturing defects or defects acquired through overuse or abuse. Forensic science - Forensic science - Questioned-document analysis: Questioned-document analysis involves a number of areas of forensic inquiry. Documents may be … These defects may occur in the source machine, the recipient machine, or both, and must be differentiated from the noise that may occur during transmission. As a result, subtle details often relied upon in the analysis of handwriting or typed writing may not be reproduced. Document Examination Unit Study of handwriting and typewriting to to I'd a person +17 more terms. This technique has resulted in the recovery of indented impressions on paper up to seven layers beneath the original writing, though findings may vary depending on pen pressure and paper thickness. the scientific examination of physical evidence for legal purposes This term is synomous with forensic science. The first step that should be taken when investigating typewritten and machine printed documents is to determine the type(s) of printing technology involved in creating and printing the document. The last stage in the ACE-V methodology is verification, wherein a second expert document examiner retests the original hypothesis using the ACE process in order to determine whether it is possible to formally individualize or exclude particular information sets used for comparison. Acknowledgment This is publication number 09-17 of the Laboratory Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Collected writing specimens, however, are writings that were completed by the subject examination to the investigation. Very importantly, any forensic document examiner you wish to employ should have invested in equipment and laboratory facilities. The Firearms Examination Unit houses the guns it collects from crimes inside the city’s department of forensics. Click here to join. Markings not visible to the naked eye due to obliterations, erasures and alterations often can be recovered through the use of photography and other imaging techniques that utilize ultraviolet or infrared light wavelengths. Unit 1 Text Questions Review Questions Q: What is Forensic Science? The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics offers wage information for the broad category of forensic science technicians, which includes forensic … Signatures may be of particularly poor quality if they must be reproduced in front of the person intended to receive or verify it (e.g., signing a credit card receipt in front of a storekeeper).