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For example, this can occur if a bird swan necks and another body part makes contact with the electrified waterbath first for electrical waterbath stunners and therefore the brain is bypassed with no resulting epileptic seizure. Type: Scientific Opinion. When the current passes through heart as well, either simultaneously or sequentially, this can cause cardiac fibrillation with subsequent cardiac arrest and death. The following principles apply to humane treatment of the birds for gas stunning: the gas mixtures and methods used are proven to be effective and humane, animals should not pile, vocalize, stand or fall on top of each other during the stunning process, the behaviour of birds during the induction of insensibility should be monitored, evaluated, and recorded and corrective action procedures taken for deviations, there should be an emergency back-up plan in the event of gas stunning equipment or system failure, This emergency plan should be well designed to ensure the humane treatment of the birds at all times and the prevention of prolonged periods of time that the birds are without food or water, It should include the proper use of well-maintained back-up stunning equipment. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. These methods of slaughter differ from the humane practice andits associated techniques in the sense that by interpretation of the basictenets governing them, the animals must be in a state of consciousnessat the time they are bled. Ritual slaughter is performed by a throat cut, which severs all soft tissues of the throat (muscles, blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, nerves) without preslaughter stunning. A gun fires a metal bolt into the brain of the animal causing the animal to lose consciousness immediately. University, In order to safeguard the welfare of the birds to be killed, it is necessary for the guide to be both thorough and illustrated. 1.1 Shechita2 Shechita is the Jewish method of slaughtering animals and poultry for food. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "poultry slaughtering" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. The floor of the box should be non-slip. 2. the recommended equipment settings for each size of bird that is stunned including specification of: the frequency of current (AC/DC) and which one is used for which step, the time of stun (taking into account the line speed and length of the stunner), number of birds stunned at the same time and for each step in a two-phase system, the protocol for the maintenance of the equipment for salinity flow. stunned as per other slaughter as certain stun methods (not captive-bolt) are accepted by a number of halal certification bodies for certain species.1 However, any stunning is considered ‘injuring’ the animal in Jewish Law and is not permitted. Please do not read further if you feel you may be negatively affected by the content. This opinion on the killing of rabbits for human consumption (‘slaughtering’) responds to two mandates: one from the European Parliament (EP) and the other from the European Commission. Slaughterhouse killing methods seek to maximize speed, and it is widely believed that the fastest way to drain animals of all of their blood is to slit their throats while their hearts are still beating. Removal of skin —> Manual with knives (most locker plants) or mechanical with hide pullers (Wolverine and Jimmy Dean most common). Meat processing plants (MPPs) produce large amounts of slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) because of the slaughtering process and cleaning of facilities. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Both Halal and Kashrut methods of slaughtering animals are founded on the principles of non-suffering. Pre-stun shock occurs when any part of a bird receives an electric shock before it enters the waterbath or in other cases, before it is effectively stunned. Electrical stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. Electrical - used on sheep, calves and pigs. Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations (SFCR) came into force on January 15, 2019, certain requirements may apply in 2020 and 2021 based on food commodity, type of activity and business size. Swine 1. CVASU Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 2015 Jun 30; 4(3): 4576: EFSA Journal (2004), 45, 1 -29, (English only): European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) publications for monitoring of stunning during slaughter, 2013: Verhoeven, Merel, Marien Gerritzen, Antonio Velarde, Ludo Hellebrekers, Bas Kemp. According to scientific evidence, the zabihah method of slaughter is actually one of the most humane types of slaughter. is performed by competent personnel as per the licence holder's animal welfare PCP: frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of birds or rabbits or employee shift changes. Abstract. The pre-stun facilities in lairage, including gondolas and automated gates to move the pigs, and the stunning chambers, pit, in addition to the post-stun facilities, should be specifically designed: for CAS stunning and for the size and weight of pigs, to avoid injury, overcrowding or unnecessary stress, to continuously measure and display the gas concentration at induction and at the point of maximum gas concentration, the time of exposure should also be displayed or indicated, so animals can be visually monitored during the induction phase for any behaviour indicating distress from adverseness to the inhaled gas (agitation and escaping behaviour), so animals can be accessed if the conveyance system fails, taking into account personnel safety, so the adjacent work area is equipped with gas-measuring equipment that continuously measure and display the gas concentrations, to provide a visible and audible warning to staff, if the gases used in stunning exceed the maximum allowed in the surrounding work area, so the concentration of gases in the work area do not exceed those permitted under provincial and/or federal OSH requirements, it is recommended to use the gondola group system for pit type of gas stunning systems since pigs are generally calmer when stunned in groups than when moved in single file to the stunner, a protocol for animal handling to be carried out by competent employees during pre-stun to minimize stress, the gas concentrations and time of exposure are documented in the PCP and selected to minimize the stress of induction of anesthesia, gas mixtures and methods that used are those proven to be effective and humane. The basic slaughtering process. WELCOME TO MY animals are bled by incising a carotid artery and jugular vein close to the cranial part of the neck, or close to the place from which they arise (chest sticking): chest sticking is strongly recommended as it results in a massive flow of blood rapidly when done properly, the blood flow from sticking is adequate to prevent occlusion during bleed out. Some signs are useful indicators of both consciousness and unconsciousness, for example: Rhythmic breathing is a useful sign of unconsciousness when absent after electrical and mechanical stunning methods and a useful sign of consciousness or return to consciousness when present, assessing consciousness/sensibility in poultry can present with challenges because of the high line speeds used in most federal poultry slaughter establishments, for practical purposes, groups of birds are assessed for uniformity of signs of consciousness or unconsciousness to gain an idea of whether stunning is effective, effectiveness of stunning is evaluated on an outcome basis (no signs of return to sensibility), however the signs of return to consciousness are progressive so it is important not to wait before implementing deviation procedures when observing any of these signs of consciousness during the monitoring procedures on an ongoing basis, the signs of consciousness/sensibility or unconsciousness/ insensibility vary with the species and the method of stunning used, the licence holder should include as part of the animal welfare PCP for poultry, effective measures for ensuring all birds are effectively stunned and no conscious birds enters the scald tank alive as the key outcome to prevent avoidable suffering to the individual bird, This includes the monitoring for signs that no birds are returning to sensibility at any point prior to entering the scald tank, including during the bleed-out step, monitoring at more than one point on the line is ideal and should include right after the stunning procedure and at some point during the bleed out process prior to the birds entering the scalding tank, a functioning reticular formation is required for the standing posture and is affected by all forms of stunning, Collapse occurs immediately after effective mechanical and electrical stunning, However, collapse can also be caused if the mechanical penetrative or electrical device is improperly place on the neck, bypassing the brain and resulting in immobilization or paralysis without unconsciousness, Gas stunning results in the gradual loss of the ability to stand, blinking is generated by an eye preservation reflex, absence of blinking indicates the required cranial nerves have lost sensory and motor function, involves circuits in the brainstem and cortex, monitoring for spontaneous blinking is a useful indicator of consciousness, spontaneous blinking must be absent after effective stunning, repeated spontaneous blinking can be a sign of consciousness, especially if occurring together with eye movements, focused on external stimuli, the nerves innervating the eyeball and pupil are non-functional, indicative that brain activity is impaired, a wide open, relaxed eye with a blank stare can be taken as a good indicator of unconsciousness, wide open, relaxed eyes and pupil can indicate a dead animal, corneal reflex and palpebral reflex have similar neural circuits but palpebral disappears first, absence indicates a loss of brain stem function and thus loss of sensibility, do not use corneal reflex to evaluate efficacy of electric stunning because of tonic seizure activity which may affect eyeball muscles, can be taken as a sign that the brain is reorganizing after stunning, absence of corneal reflex is a reliable indicator of unconsciousness, vertical or horizontal rapid oscillation of the eyeball or 'vibrating eye', presence of nystagmus suggests dysfunction in the underlying circuits of the brain or damage to the cerebellum of vestibular system, the implication of nystagmus depends on the stunning method used, nystagmus is often seen during seizure caused by effective electrical stunning in all species, especially at higher frequencies, if nystagmus occurs after captive bolt stunning this is generally associated with an ineffective stun and requires a restun, if intentional eye movements are present, the animal is conscious, involves higher-order cortical activity in perception and integration of information from the environment, hand or finger movement towards the eyes and a blinking or withdrawal reaction indicates animal is conscious, eyeball movement depends on muscles that receive information from brainstem, which is controlled by higher brain centres, full or partial eyeball rotation after mechanical stunning in cattle indicates a risk of return to consciousness and requires a second stun, intermittent forceful and disorganized inspiratory movements, rhythmic breathing is coordinated by the brainstem (medulla oblongata) and through information received from the periphery and higher brain centres, agonal gasping can be induced by ischemia or hypoxia and precedes death, absence of rhythmic breathing is consistent with unconsciousness or death, presence of breathing is a sign of return to sensibility after all methods of stunning, check the flank, nostril and mouth for signs of rhythmic breathing, gasping may be observed after effective electrical or gas stunning but should not occur after effective mechanical stunning, agonal gasping resembles the gasping movements of 'a fish out of water', when the breathing reflex starts to return, it can begin as regular gagging until recovery of rhythmic breathing, requires function of somatosensory and motor cortex, intentional vocalization indicates consciousness, when it occurs with stunning, is a pain response, gasping accompanied by guttural sounds are not the same as vocalization, kicking or paddling after stunning is most often a sign that inhibition of spinal nerve transmission patterns is lost, they are involuntary moments that are independent of consciousness, in addition, the somatic reflex arc may sometimes cause the unconscious animal after stunning to react to sticking/cutting painful stimuli, usually in the form of movement of the forelegs; these are spinal reflexes that do not involve the central nervous system, paddling of limbs can occur in unconscious animals during gas stunning but the body is limp, tonic seizures post-stunning are characterized by an arched back and rigidly flexed legs under the body; these are expected signs for mechanical and electrical stunning and are followed by clonic seizure activity that includes random leg kicking or paddling, evaluate with other signs and type of stunning method, righting reflex may be helped by subcortical CNS structures, but in most cases means function of the cerebral cortex and return of proprioception and muscle tone, righting may be impaired by shackling or restraint or the use of certain current forms in electrical stunning, an animal attempting to right itself will have an arched back, and attempt to raise its head or attempt to regain posture, if the righting reflex is present it is very likely that the animal is sensible, a relaxed tail does not occur together with an arched back or righting, body hangs straight down except sheep with neck hanging at an angle because of different anatomy, a floppy, flaccid, relaxed head and neck, hanging straight down in shackled animals indicates that muscle tone and in most cases cerebral control over posture are lost, if the head is floppy, in most cases consciousness is lost, muscle tension in the jaw, mouth or lips can indicate presence of cranial nerve function (sign of returning to sensibility), these signs can be useful indicators of poor stunning particularly in animals that are stunned with a captive bolt (less useful with firearm, electrical or gas stunning ), response to nose prick or pinch or ear pinch may indicate presence of cortical nerve activity in the respective circuit of sensory and motor cranial nerves, other responses may be a simple nociceptive arc-reflex response, based on a neural circuit that passes through the spinal cord, but not the brain, the nerves involved in the arc-reflex retain some functionality for a while after unconsciousness, response to nose prick/ear pinch may indicate consciousness or possible return to sensibility, ventral movement of neck in response to cutting of skin and blood vessels can be a nociceptive reflex response involving the spinal cord only; the reaction to the skin cut and other tissues cannot be used as an indicator of consciousness, need to evaluate with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, a relaxed tongue may indicate loss of cranial nerve function, The tongue may hang out also due to gravity when the jaw muscles are relaxed, and this is a sign that the animal is unconscious, This can be confirmed by manipulating the jaws by hand and if there is no resistance to movement, the animal is unconscious, A curled tongue can be a sign of possible return to sensibility, neck positions are variable but should be consistent for all birds in a lot using same electrical parameters, for example the necks will be initially stiff and arched (perhaps parallel to the ground when shackled); this phase will rapidly disappear after neck cutting so applies to step between stunning neck cutting, then the head and neck will become limp after the clonic seizure phase is finished; flaccid head, absence of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), absence of spontaneous blinking and the third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex, absence of other eye reflexes (palpebral, corneal and pupillary). A transverse incision of the neck is a common method of bleeding sheep. The Slaughterer The Animal Slaughtered Tools and Equipment of Slaughterer The Slaughtering Process Waterbath and plate stunners are available as single phase or multiphase systems: either only one electrical phase of one waveform and current amplitude is used, or two phases of differing waveforms and/or current amplitudes are used consecutively: For example, for a two plate, two phase system: one phase delivers an AC (lower frequency alternate current phase, with sinusoidal waveform) current and the other delivers a DC pulsed current (higher frequency, direct pulsating current phase), each phase section (AC and DC) should be equipped with meters to measure the amount of current, as well as voltage, being supplied to that section of the stunner to assess the effective functioning of the equipment, the calculations of the amount of current being provided to stun each bird is not the sum of the amount delivered to each phase since each section is a separate stunning phase of the entire system and the amount delivered to each bird depends on the number of birds in each stunning phase at one time, each phase section (AC and DC) should be supplied with sufficient current to render the bird insensible, otherwise there is a risk of ineffective stunning or electroimmobilization, the ground bar should come in contact with all shackles over the AC and DC phase sections. A five-year study of our humane slaughter training found that abattoirs earned a better reputation by using humane methods, helping them compete globally. However, it may not always provide a consistent uniform stunning concentration of CO, This may lead to a failure to stun some birds or that some birds regain consciousness prior to bleeding, For some systems in use, a more gradual increase in CO. Total dwell time will depend on class or species of poultry, average weight of birds, equipment and parameters used and whether the outcome is intended to be reversible or irreversible stunning. The outcome of electrical stunning is to pass current of sufficient strength and duration through the brain to interrupt normal brain rhythmic electrical activity. Shields, Sara J., Raj, A.B.M, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:281 – 299, 2010: Girasole, Mariagrazia, et al, Ital J Food Saf. For example for a single phase waterbath system: the height of the waterbath stunner water level and the level of brine in the waterbath stunner are adjusted throughout the day as needed to ensure even the smallest birds are submerged up to the base of their wings, or the birds' shoulders in the electrified water, For systems requiring increased salinity, salt can be added to the waterbath solution before the stunning starts and an effective salt concentration of the brine is maintained throughout the day to facilitate the flow of an effective electric current through the birds, Both AC or DC currents are used in single phase water bath systems with either sinusoidal or square waveforms, lower frequencies at higher amperages and voltages produce more effective and longer stunning times in the birds. the protocol for level of salinity used and its adjustment including: manufacturers recommended procedures to enhance the salinity of water to improve electrical conductivity, as required, correct flow of the brine to avoid preshock from the brine flowing out the entrance to the bath, maintenance and cleaning protocol of shackles for electric contact to prevent poor electrical conductivity, the protocol for staff for stopping the line in the stunning and bleeding areas in the event of a problem or communicating problems so that corrective action procedures can be immediately taken, the system used should have meters or the proper software if computerized that display or record the amperage (ammeter) and/or volts (voltmeter), frequency and duration of the stun, meters (voltmeters and ammeters) are best installed where clearly visible to staff operating the electrical water bath or plate stunning systems and to any person who monitors, verifies, inspects or audits the system, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift, before each new lot of birds or employee shift changes. Cradle dressing —> Skin forelegs and hindlegs, fist over breast, abdomen and sides, and after hanging, fist over legs, back, rump and shoulder. As such, some people may find some of the descriptions and graphics upsetting. MS student in Animal Science therefore, the electrode(s) are not positioned on the animal's neck or muzzle, for example for rabbits: when electrical head-only stunning equipment for rabbits is used to make contact with the muzzle of the rabbit and not span the brain, this will cause electroimmobilization only and not an effective stun, for head only electric stunning, the stun-to-stick interval should not exceed 15 seconds for most species, for head-to-body stunning, the outcome is generally an irreversible outcome, when done properly. out rates and duration, amount of blood retained, methods to determine effective slaughtering including indicators of unconsciousness, signs of recovery, sets of recommendations and guidelines) 2 3. Review research on the effect of slaughter methods on carcass and meat quality, including objective assessment criteria (e.g. initial tonic phase of the seizure includes: constant rapid body and wing tremors immediately after stunning, rigidly extended legs (may be difficult to see in shackles), may have petit mal body convulsions including non-intentional wing flapping after rapid body tremors have stopped, rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), swallowing reflex (deglutition reflex), manifested as beak movements after stunning (from water entering mouth) and after cutting (from blood entering the mouth), shaking of head during cutting and bleeding from blood entering nares (intentional body movement), vigorous wing flapping (intentional body movement), return of tension in the neck after the limp phase, some types of current systems can have a relaxing or immobilizing effect on the neck ; in these cases the signs of return to sensibility after stunning can be masked, response to pain, such as neck cutting, can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only and is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs and what electrical parameters are used to stun the bird, loss of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), rigidly extended legs (more difficult to see when shackled), vigorous involuntary flapping and severe convulsions, absence of a third eyelid (nictitating membrane) movement and other eye movements and reflexes, response to pain, such as neck cutting can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, loss of posture, muscle tone, relaxed, limp body, no rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), absence of third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex or spontaneous blinking, blinking (third eyelid) and third eyelid reflex, the outcome of effective cutting and bleeding of all food animals is to result in death through exsanguination of the animal with all methods of stunning, especially if there is any potential for the stunning to be reversible, this ensures the animal will not regain consciousness during further dressing procedures, stunned animals are bled out as soon as possible and remain insensible until death, the time between effective stun and effective stick is kept to a minimum. By contrast, reversible stunning methods will allow the animal to regain consciousness and these rely on the bleeding out stage from cutting the blood vessels to result in the death of the animal. is a United States federal law designed to decrease suffering of livestock during slaughter.It was approved on August 27, 1958. These trained employees should be able to monitor: signs of return to sensibility for the food animal species and type of stunning equipment or system used. A ramp at the entry to the waterbath or plate system with water should be sloped to swing the birds into the waterbath, The ramp should also be either insulated or isolated by inserting a layer of non-conducting material (in the form of sheets or rods) between the ramp and the birds to avoid the birds making direct contact with any electrified water on the ramp, CAS stunning in Canadian federal slaughter facilities, using CO, The resulting acidification inhibits neuronal activity and produces an anaesthetic like effect, For current systems in use in North America, pigs are exposed to induction levels of high concentrations of CO. In Australia approximately 32 million sheep and 8 million cattle are killed in abattoirs each year for human consumption (both domestic and export). Mahabub Alam The licence holder's written animal welfare PCP for the captive bolt stunning equipment should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: equipment operators are trained and competent to use the equipment and are able to monitor the signs of an effective stun for each animal. 3. All cattle killed in Australian abattoirs are restrained upright and stunned during slaughter, including tho… This research paper discuss the difference between the halal (Islamic) and the recent (conventional) methods of animals slaughter and explain the effect of each method on the meat safety and hygiene. They should be sufficiently trained and competent to monitor every animal after stunning or for poultry, whether most of the birds appear the same when looking down the line, until the animals are bled out and verified to be dead prior to further dressing steps and procedures. Methods of slaughter used today by Non-Muslims. There are various methods available to stun larger animals, these include: Penetrating captive bolt - used on cattle, sheep and some pigs. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The meat processing industry is one of the largest consumers of total freshwater used in the agricultural and livestock industry worldwide. Khulshi, Chittagong -4202 basic slaughtering process; meat processing. every establishment using gas stunning should have a written protocol that is linked to or is part of the establishment food safety PCP to identify DOAs and how identified DOAs are removed: the licence holder may choose to identify and remove DOAs either before or after the CAS step, the protocol may be based on an acceptable standard or practice that is derived from documented evidence (such as scientific articles or studies) or it may be the result of validation studies conducted in the establishment, the system (including the modules if using a system where birds are not removed) where birds are exposed to the gas and the equipment used to convey them through the system should be designed and maintained to avoid injury and unnecessary stress, the gas system should be designed so birds can be visually monitored during the induction phase, throughout the stunning phase and accessed if the conveyance system fails in accordance with the PCP corrective action procedures. the right equipment is used for the right species at all times, the current (amperage and voltage) is adequate for the species slaughtered to avoid electroimmobilization, employees who conduct the stunning require adequate training for the specific equipment used, animals are well restrained and stay calm, for head-only stunning, the outcome is a reversible stun, the electrodes must always be placed to span the brain for the current to flow properly through the brain for all food animals. If a landmark other than the midline frontal is used then it will require documented evidence or validation by the licence holder to show the alternative approach can stun the animal properly: for example, a poll (top of the head) entry using firearms may be more useful for heavily horned sheep and all goats, captive bolt stunning may be penetrative or non-penetrative, both methods rely on the outcome of instantaneous and massive disruption of brain function to render the animal unconscious, Cartridges with compressed air, gunpowder or a spring under tension drive the bolt either against the skull or through it, the outcome causes unconsciousness from the combined effect of the concussive blow to the head and the penetrating bolt creating damage to the brain as it passes through and retracts, the impact alone creates pressure or shock waves that have multiple effects disrupting normal brain function, including flattening of the cerebrum contralateral to the shot, the passage and retraction of the bolt creates additional damage from a cavitation effect, hemorrhage, bone fragmentation, crushing, laceration and tearing of axons and blood vessels, even when the targeting is not optimal, such as when the animal moves, the animal may still be correctly stunned because of the massive damage from the impact and local damage of the bolt; therefore, slightly lower or slightly higher targeting can still work as long as essential parts of the brainstem are still damaged, however if the relevant structures are not damaged or the damage is limited, the animal may be still conscious or partially conscious and will require a second stun, targeting too high will only reach the cerebellum, targeting too low will only slightly damage the frontal cortex with the undesirable outcome that the animal is wounded but conscious, the outcome relies on the mushroom head causing unconsciousness from the concussive impact of the blow alone, rapid oscillations in the resulting pressure waves cause the resulting loss of consciousness, there may also be concurrent fracturing of the skull from the impact and internal brain hemorrhage, it requires extreme accuracy to be effective; therefore the landmarks are extremely important, for this reason, it should be used only in very young and small animals such as poultry, rabbits, and ruminants weighing less than 10kg and the head should be well-restrained to help with the accuracy of the blow, However, in immature animals, this method may crush the skull and result in an ineffective stun.

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