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Basic Appl Ecol 15:651–660, Vovides AG, Bashan Y, López-Portillo J, Guevara R (2011) Nitrogen fixation in preserved, reforested, naturally regenerated and impaired mangroves as an indicator of functional restoration in mangroves in an arid region of Mexico. Wetl Ecol Manag 4:93–109. A recent narrative review by Bosire et al. Ecol Eng 2005, 24: 403–418. We urge the continental level implementation of guidelines to advance international initiatives aimed to protect and conserve one the most productive and threatened coastal ecosystems in the world. Table 4.9: Proposed Action plans for Mangrove Rehabilitation Measure/Action 1: Attract funds through properly formulated proposals and through encouragement of self sustaining economic activities using mangrove products. Latif MA, 1996. Diversity 7:149–169, Giri C, Pengra B, Zhu Z, Singh A, Tieszen LL (2007) Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000. 3) [55], where Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. Environmental Evidence 10.2984/1534-6188(2008)62[1:PCOTMC]2.0.CO;2, Rönnbäck P: The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:154–159, Ghosh A, Schmidt S, Fickert T, Nüsser M (2015) The Indian Sundarban mangrove forests: history, utilization, conservation strategies and local perception. JLP was funded by the Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad-CONABIO (project nos. Int J Biodiv Sci Ecosyst Serv Manage 11:29–35, Ezcurra P, Ezcurra E, Garcillán PP, Costa M, Aburto-Oropeza M (2016) Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 2005, 63: 605–618. Ecol Monogr 2011, 81: 169–193. Special Issue "Mangrove Wetland Restoration and Rehabilitation" Special Issue Editors Special Issue Information Keywords; ... Mangrove forests are critical sources of goods and services to society in tropical and subtropical latitudes. ISME Mangrove Ecosystem Proceedings Number 5. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems and International Tropical Timber Organization, Okinawa, Chargoy Reyes MA, Tovilla Hernández C (2002) Restauración de áreas alteradas de manglar con, Chen L, Peng S, Li J, Lin Z, Zeng Y (2013) Competitive control of an exotic mangrove species: restoration of native mangrove forests by altering light availability. Estuar Coasts 37:763–771, Lugo AE (1978) Stress and ecosystems. 10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00016-6, Das S, Vincent JR: Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Bois et Foréts des Tropiques 273:5–21, Tamin NM, Zakaria R, Hashim R, Yin Y (2001) Establishment of, Tang Y, Fang Z, Chen K, Zhang Z, Zhong Y, An D, Yang X, Liao B (2012) Ecological influence of exotic plants of. S Afr J Bot 67:383–389, Kaly UL, Jones GP (1998) Mangrove restoration: a potential tool for coastal management in tropical developing countries. Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Comisión Federal de Electricidad, Comisión Nacional Forestal. ... Mangrove and Beach Forest Rehabilitation and Conservation B. Barbier EB, Hacker SD, Kennedy C, Koch EW, Stier AC, Silliman BR: The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. To recognize different types of mangrove forest trees as a precursor to conducting forest rehabilitation 3. Island Press, Washington, pp 417–419, Lewis RR, Marshall MJ (1998) Principles of successful restoration of shrimp aquaculture ponds back to mangrove forests (abstract). Environ Manage 2005, 36: 535–550. equals the weighting and k equals the number of studies. Ocean & Coastal Management 1998, 41: 63–88. 10.1017/S0376892911000373. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 277–297, Stubbs BJ, Saenger P (2002) The application of forestry principles to the design, execution and evaluation of mangrove restoration projects. Sabah Forestry Department, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems and Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 56 pp. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Tomlinson PB (1986) The Botany of Mangrove. Recent recognition of the importance of mangrove forests has led to widespread efforts to restore or rehabilitate deforested mangrove areas, with many of these projects hoping to combine re-establishing ecosystem services for local communities benefits with biodiversity conservation [7]. Despite this, mangroves dominated by different tree species can have similar and rich invertebrate communities, believed to be more influenced by salinity, tidal inundation and sediment composition than tree species diversity [20]. After the presentations, the audience discussed many scenarios, problems, and requirements on achieving sustainable rehabilitation of the mangrove forests. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:157–167, Bohórquez-Rueda C, Prada-Triana MC (1988) Transplante de plántulas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) en el Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario, Colombia. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 339–347, Saenger P, Khalil A (2011) Regional guidelines for mangrove restoration in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Despite the proliferation of projects aiming to restore and rehabilitate mangroves there is currently very little evaluation of their effectiveness. In: Thorp JH, Gibbons JW (eds) Energy and environmental stress in aquatic systems. Hogarth P: The biology of mangroves and seagrasses. All relevant database records will be downloaded with abstracts (where possible) and stored in an EndNote library. This issue is not new, and a recent global study incorporating data from 89 studies across six different broadly defined biomes found restoration increased biodiversity by 44% and ecosystem services by 25% relative to levels prior to restoration, but despite this increase both biodiversity and ecosystem service provision remained lower than natural ecosystems [50]. In 2007, less than 15 million hectares (37 million acres) of mangroves remain. In: Young HE (ed) Symposium on primary productivity and mineral cycling in natural ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 1992, 247: 37–47. Manual on Mangrove Reversion of Abandoned and Illegal Brackishwater Fishponds (2.92 MB) 2. statement and Worldview International Foundation is testing a project aimed at speeding up the rehabilitation of mangrove forests in Yangon Region using drones to replant the shrubs, which only thrive on saline or brackish water along coasts, a senior executive of the organization said on Wednesday. Biometrics 1977, 33: 159–174. These steps should be part of a robust research agenda based on sound ecological theory and reliable monitoring practices, including the participation of local communities. Estuaries 2003, 26: 1461–1471. Ocean & Coastal Management 2013, 83: 5–14. Not affiliated Lewis RR III: Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113(16):4404-4409, Fernandes MEB, Nascimento AAM, Carvalho ML (2009) Effects of herbivory by, Ferreira AC, Ganade G, de Attayde JL (2015) Restoration versus natural regeneration in a neotropical mangrove: effects on plant biomass and crab communities. Glob Environ Chang 22:332–341, Biswas SR, Malik AU, Choudhury JK, Nishat A (2009) A united framework for the restoration of Southeast Asian mangroves – bridging ecology, society and economics. 2 [56], where LnR This raises the concern that restored and rehabilitated forests may not contain biodiversity and associated ecosystem service benefits at the levels found in natural forests. The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration; 2004. Environ Conserv 4:51–58, Thomas S (2014) Blue carbon: Knowledge gaps, critical issues, and novel approaches. Mangrove forests are located in the tropical and subtropical areas at the boundary between the aquatic (normally marine or brackish) and the terrestrial environment [1]. Ecotropicos 19:72–93, Rivera-Monroy VH, Twilley RR, Mancera-Pineda JE, Madden CJ, Alcantara-Eguren A, Moser EB, Jonsson BF, Castañeda-Moya E, Casas-Monroy O, Reyes-Forero P, Restrepo J (2011) Salinity and Chlorophyll a as performance measures to rehabilitate a mangrove-dominated deltaic coastal region: the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta-Pajarales Lagoon Complex, Colombia. Sub-group analysis will also be run to investigate the effects of different taxonomic groups and ecosystem service types to address the proposed secondary questions. Ecol Econ 35:91–106, Primavera J (2006) Overcoming the impacts of aquaculture on the coastal zone. Nat Clim Chang 2:764, Peng YG, Xu ZC, Liu MC (2012) Introduction and ecological effects of an exotic mangrove species, Primavera JH (2000) Development and conservation of Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. The websites of the following organisations working on mangrove related projects will be searched. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa, You can also search for this author in BEX1930/13-3) provided funding for ASR. 10.1371/journal.pone.0043542, Kairo JG, Lang’at JKS, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Bosire J, Karachi M: Structural development and productivity of replanted mangrove plantations in Kenya. Summary findings of DFID-funded research ‘participatory mechanisms for sustainable development of coastal ecosystems’ (Project R6977), School of African and Asian studies, University of Sussex, Falmer, 48 p, Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N (2011) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. ... there have been significant efforts to increase mangrove extent through restoration and rehabilitation. 10.1038/ngeo1123, Carlton JM: Land-building and stabilization by mangroves. An in-depth study in Sri Lanka. Forest overharvesting is a major threat in some areas, mainly caused by timber demand for firewood, charcoal and construction materials, but also for mangrove fruit, leaves, bark and roots which have a traditional medicinal role [12]. Restor Ecol 8:247–259, Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO, Menezes GV, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Poffo IRF, Eysink GGJ (2005) Recuperação de manguezais: um estudo de caso na Baixada Santista de São Paulo, Brasil. Estuar Coasts 34:1–19, Roderstein M, Perdomo L, Villamil C, Hauffe T, Schnetter ML (2014) Long-term vegetation changes in a tropical coastal lagoon system after interventions in the hydrological conditions. Duke NC, Meynecke JO, Dittmann S, Ellison AM, Anger K, Berger U, Cannicci S, Diele K, Ewel KC, Field CD, Koedam N, Lee SY, Marchand C, Nordhaus I, Dahdouh-Guebas F: A world without mangroves? 10.1007/BF02803654, Bouillon S, Koedam N, Raman A, Dehairs F: Primary producers sustaining macro-invertebrate communities in intertidal mangrove forests. Ecol Econ 1999, 29: 235–252. Biogeosciences 11:2623–2634, Botero L, Salzwedel H (1999) Rehabilitation of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a mangrove-estuarine system in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1997, 1: 127–135. The number of mangrove rehabilitation programmes world-wide is extensive. Are provisioning ecosystem services restored during mangrove restoration or rehabilitation? Aquac Research 1997, 28: 815–827. Cite this article. HH05 and MN001). During abstract screening it is not expected that comparators will be explicitly stated in abstracts, however, from preliminary search testing all relevant studies stated that they aimed to evaluate restoration success in their abstracts, with the majority specifically stating the existence of a comparator. Numerous projects were implemented without an underlying science-based approach and were often ill-prepared and unsuccessful. PERSGA Guidelines No. Lewis RR, Brown B (2014) Ecological mangrove rehabilitation – a field manual for practitioners. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000. Thesis, Jorge Tadeo Lozano Univ., Bogotá, Colombia 97 p. Outterson AH (2014) Evaluating the Progress of a Mangrove Reforestation Project on Isla Galeta, Colon. Hydrolog Sci J 56:1423–1435, Vogt J, Lin Y, Pranchai A, Frohberg P, Mehlig U, Berger U (2014) The importance of conspecific facilitation during recruitment and regeneration: a case study in degraded mangroves. In: Quarto A, Enright J, Corets E, Primavera J, Ravishankar T, Stanley OD, Djamaluddin R (eds) Mangrove action project – Yayasan Akar Rumput Laut (YARL), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, p 64. Mangrove leaf litter has an important role alongside imported phytodetritus from surrounding areas in decomposition and nutrient cycling between the mangrove biotic and abiotic components as well as linking mangrove vegetation to fauna [52]. as appropriate. X All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This review will assess studies that have undertaken biodiversity surveys of restored and rehabilitated mangrove forests by comparing them against suitable mature reference mangrove forests within the same region, or surveys prior to degradation of the forest. This review will investigate how the age and initial tree diversity of a restoration or rehabilitation activities determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. While they identified some trends they also found contradictory studies documenting invertebrate species abundance and diveristy. Mar Pollut Bull 37:383–392, Field CD (1999b) Mangrove rehabilitation: choice and necessity. 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.031, Bonine KM, Bjorkstedt EP, Ewel KC, Palik M: Population characteristics of the mangrove crab Scylla serrata (Decapoda: Portunidae) in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia: effects of harvest and implications for management. Mangrove rehabilitation using permeable structures Permeable structures have been built from poles and brushwood to dampen the waves and capture sediment. Study inclusion criteria for full text screening: Relevant intervention: Study must include a site where mangrove forest has been established (either through: direct plantations, protection of an area allowing regeneration, natural regeneration combined with supplementary planting or altering environmental conditions to enable a mangrove forest to establish) where prior to the establishment/colonisation event there were not intact mangrove forests. Soil Biol Biochem 75:223–232, Luo Z, Sun OJ, Xu H (2010) A comparison of species composition and stand structure between planted and natural mangrove forests in Shenzhen Bay, South China. Wetl Ecol Manag:1–14. Besides this mangroves also provide construction timber for houses and fish traps and firewood. The focus on abundance becomes clear when considering some metrics used to assess the amount of an ecosystem service (see Table 1). Pagliosa PR, Rovai AS, Fonseca AL (2012) Carbon mismanagement in Brazil. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science Policy Working Group: Society for ecological restoration international science & policy working group. The module establishes the difference between forest restoration and rehabilitation and sets out the main steps involved in both. 10.1016/S0964-5691(98)00074-X, Islam MS, Haque M: The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation and management. PLoS One 9(8):e105069, Hamilton S (2013) Assessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest. For Ecol Manag 131:201–214, Estrada GCD, Soares MLG, Fernadez V, de Almeida PMM (2015) The economic evaluation of carbon storage and sequestration as ecosystem services of mangroves: a case study from southeastern Brazil. Aquat Bot 76:267–279, Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis RR, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N (2008) Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Most of the information is taken from Field (1996) and … Ecol Restor 23:276–277, Lewis RR (2009) Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration. 80 million acres). Mace GM, Norris K, Fitter AH: Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. American Fisheries Society, Kissimmee, pp 281–233, Lewis RR (1990) Wetlands restoration/creation/enhancement terminology: suggestions for standardization. Mangrove systems can be restored or rehabilitated at different scales through a suite of different methods, from natural regeneration through to direct planting of single or mixed species plantations [18]. Zoological Society of London, London. Although a sine qua non of successful mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects is accurate attention to local hydrology and basic biology of mangrove trees and their associated fauna, their long-term success depends on far more axes, each with their own … 10.1016/0160-7383(87)90050-8, Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA, Kinzig AP, Daily GC, Loreau M, Grace JB, Larigauderie A, Srivastava DS, Naeem S: Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Environ Conserv 2007, 34: 313–324. Bioscience 2001, 51: 807. 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1997.tb01006.x, Gunawardena M, Rowan JS: Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka. Coastal rehabilitation and mangrove restoration using melaleuca fences Practical experience from Kien Giang Province 4 5 Mangrove forests are being lost through erosion at an alarming rate in Viet Nam. Ecol Indic 2012, 23: 431–446. With many different restoration and rehabilitation objectives and techniques existing, it is difficult to assess the general effectiveness of restoration and rehabilitation on biodiversity and ecosystem services. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, pp 62–98, Lugo AE (1992) Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. [7] investigated functionality of restored mangroves. Resources & Publications - Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (EMR) Manual - Over the years, there have been many different attempts to restore mangroves. []. Niche partitioning studies have also been conducted in mangroves and associated inter-tidal mud flats to identify how such diverse communities can be maintained with a relatively homogenous input of organic materials and nutrients [21]. 10.1651/07-2835R.1, Duke NC: Gap creation and regenerative processes driving diversity and structure of mangrove ecosystems. Taxa of commercial value to local communities will be assessed to identify whether rehabilitation for optimal ecosystem service provision is likely to conflict with the full restoration of mangrove forests. Florida chapter. This can be broken into components as shown in Table 2. Ambio 27:656–661, Kamali B, Hashim R (2011) Mangrove restoration without planting. With so much recent attention being given to mangrove loss [6], payment for ecosystem services schemes often with a focus on carbon [53], and community based conservation [46] it is important to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation schemes using all available evidence from a range of sources. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. J Crustac Biol 2008, 28: 480–484. Forest Ecol Manag 99:275–290, Wilkie ML, Fortuna S (2003) Status and trends in mangrove area extent worldwide. Additional possible effect modifiers reported in the studies will be recorded with and a decision on whether to include these made once it become clear how many studies provide that information. Datta D, Chattopadhyay RN, Guha P: Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Review scoping was conducted to guide the construction of this protocol. Restoration and rehabilitation* of existing or former mangrove forest areas is extremely important today. Society for Ecological Restoration International-Island Press. Despite their importance, mangrove forests have faced widespread destruction throughout the past century, with more than 25% of their global cover cleared between 1980 and 2000 [1] leading to fears they could be functionally extinct within 100 years [6]. The test library consisted of 12 studies containing relevant data to the systematic review and identified by the review team from existing publications reference lists (Additional file 1). ZSL. GD-0010, PERSGA, Jeddah, Saenger P, Sankaré Y, Perry T (1996) Review of selection criteria and ecological guidelines for mangrove restoration studies. The Louisiana Sea Grant College Program (NOAA) and the CAPES/CNPq Science without Borders Program (grant no. A summary of coastal wetland carbon, including mangroves, is seen in the accompanying image. Mixed effects models will be used to test the importance of effect modifiers. Additionally, mangrove forests are among the most effective carbons sinks of all forest types: one hectare of intact mangrove forest can store up to 1,000 tons carbon. & Tucson: Society for Ecological Restoration International, Ellison AM: Mangrove restoration: do we know enough? Estuar. J Coast Res 40:79–93, Twilley RR, Rivera-Monroy VH, Chen R, Botero L (1998) Adapting an ecological mangrove model to simulate trajectories in restoration ecology. Relevant outcome: Indication that a component of species biodiversity, abundance, or directly biodiversity related ecosystem service measure is assessed/measured. REF Reference mangrove forests are mature mangrove forests composed of native tree species which have never been subjected to major anthropogenic impacts and represent as closely as possible the biodiversity of mangrove forests in the region. However, despite their ecological and economic value, they have been negatively impacted at different local and regional scales in the last 60 years. The project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 1997, 218: 13–33. Do mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation activities return biodiversity to pre-impact levels? The difference between these two definitions highlights a potential conflict in objectives. Hydrobiologia 720:1–18, Samson MS, Rollon RN (2008) Growth performance of planted red mangroves in the Philippines: revisiting forest management strategies. Now, with approximately 400,000 hectares of disused shrimp ponds available, the CBEMR method offers a successful process of mangrove rehabilitation due to extensive pre-project assessments of local ecology, hydrology and communities empowering them to be stewards of their environment, and enabling them to regain their livelihoods. 10.1890/1540-9295(2003)001[0488:RDECAR]2.0.CO;2, Hooper DU, Chapin FS III, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S, Lawton JH, Lodge DM, Loreau M, Naeem S, Schmid B, Setälä H, Symstad AJ, Vandermeer J, Wardle DA: Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge.

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