Written by James Blake Wiener, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Another Chinese chronicle tells of a city, a temple and an Iron gate that got its name because of it’s color and iron. He defends the Kingdom of Samarkand from the side of smaler India. Unknown February 24, 2018 at 5:39 AM. We said, ‘O Dhu’l Qarnain, either punish them, or treat them with kindness.’ This article is about the city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. VII, pp. Aluminum panels 7. These Iron gates owns señor Tamurbek. 122-125; Mu jam-ul-Buldan: under Bab-ulAbwab). License. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. Under Arab rule, the city flourished as an entrepôt on the Silk Road, and the Arabs consistently strengthened and reinforced Derbent’s walls and citadel during their rule of the city until the late 10th century CE. The city of Derbent is located in southern Russia in what is present-day Dagestan. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. Originally, walls of Derbent were made of adobe. The citadel contains a number of important archaeological remains, ancient and medieval structures, and even an Islamic bathhouse. From there they arrived at Derbent and saw the wall. Iron Gate, the Georgians as Degvis-Kari, i.e. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. The Iron gate has been repeatedly mentioned in written sources of Chinese, Central Asian, and Arab historians and geographers.In 630, Xuanzang described in his notes the gorge as a defensive passage covered with iron and locked with a double-leaf gate. The Great Wall of China or Gog and Magog wall? For the district in Konya Province, Turkey, see Derbent, Konya. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Reply. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. ". Geography. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. Cite This Work The Caucasus Mountains near Derbent are less 3 km (1.8 miles) from the shores of the Caspian Sea, meaning that the mountains almost extend directly to the seashore. (16th-century Persian miniature)The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from … Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely remembered by Persians today as one of their greatest rulers. Derbent’s success as a city & importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. In addition, Rui Gonzales de Clavijo mentioned another Iron gate that was located closer to the village of Derbent. Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. The modern name, a Persian word meaning “iron gates,” came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. Derbent’s ancient city, citadel, wall, and other constructions cover an area of around 10 ha, extending additionally outward some 200 ha from there as a buffer zone. She was described as a beautiful and blooming girl, with whom the General fell in love during a feast, when she led a dance in a circle. Desc: FC Derbent was a Russian football team from Derbent. Wiener, James B. It is also believed that it was in Derbent that Alexander played his wedding with Roxana, a Bactrian Princess. ", Gadjiev, M. "On the Construction Date of the Derbend Fortification Complex. The Persian Sasanian Empire annexed the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania c. 252-253 CE, rendering it little more than a vassal. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. Derbent is situated quite close to the head of the Samur River, the Rubas River, and the Sukhodol River within the Caucasus Mountain range. Probably after 508, though the date is disputed, the long fortification walls at Besh Barmak and Šīrvān/Gil’ginchaĭ were constructed in a combination of mud brick, stone blocks, and baked bricks; as they probably served as models for the massive rebuilding of the fortifications at Darband (Khan-Magomedov, 1979, p. 40), their construction serves as a terminus post quem for the latter. Shop Wayfair.ca this Cyber Week for the best Cyber Week Sales On Stair Tread Rugs. During the wall’s construction in the late 6th century CE, the Sasanians employed dry brickwork and made blocks on lime mortar. Last modified October 01, 2018. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. Break Free of the Iron Wall. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. Under Persian Safavid rule (1501-1736 CE), Derbent lay close to the frontier region with the Ottoman Empire and Russia. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th century BCE, Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE) of the Persian Sasanian Empire founded Derbent in 438 CE as a fortress city to curb raids from nomadic peoples into the Caucasus from Central Asia. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. They also constructed the Juma Mosque, the oldest mosque in Russia, in 734 CE over the remains of an old Christian basilica. Durin the 5t an 6t centuries Derbent becomes an important centre for spreadin the Christian faith in the Caucasus an aw. Sadly, one of the southern walls was destroyed in the late 19th century CE. Indeed the high wall was so thick that a cart could be driven along its top. The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from invading the land to the south. In the middle of this passage there is the village piled above him at the top of a high mountain. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. They called the city “Bab al-Abwab” or the “Gate of Gates.” They associated the city with Surah Al-Kahf in the Qu'ran, which narrates Alexander the Great's efforts to construct a gigantic iron gate to keep people from the north out of Persia. Derbent thus was an essential area in the management of the flow of peoples moving to and from the Caucasus. The famous Arab geographer Al-Yaqoubi tells about a 9th-century city in Sughd and also mentions this passage. The Arab writer and historian Ibn-Arabshah called the gate "Qagalgar", in particular, tells in some detail about the battle of Amir Timur with Emir Hussein in this territory. Sea Gate, the Russians as Derben, i.e. -- Russia Beyond the Headlines, "Russiaâ€™s oldest city: 5,000 and counting" -- RT, Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent -- UNESCO, 6,511 Miles from Derbent: Matryoshka Stories. And this passageway in the mountains is called the Iron gate, and there is no other passageway in the whole area but this one. Derbent dyĭrbyĕnt´ , city (1989 pop. Categories of Revolutionary Military Policy, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Bonner, M. "Al-KhalÄ«fa Al-Mará¸Ä«: The Accession of HÄrÅ«n Al-RashÄ«d. Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that identifies Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in verses 18:83-98 of the Quran, with Cyrus the Great. In the Middle ages, the pass occupied an important strategic place, as it was followed by numerous trade caravans and troops. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. The Arabs were impressed by Derbent's size and wealth, and they greatly appreciated the citadel and the mighty walls of Derbent. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Books A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. Derbent, Baysun, Kashkadarya region, Uzbekistan People have long recognized the strategic importance of the area in and around Derbent. Our forged steel scrolls and panels are available in the following styles: 1. Throughout its ancient and medieval history, Derbent was only one of two crossings through the Caucasus mountain range, and the city attracted the attention of foreign merchants traversing the famed Silk Road as well as the notice of great military powers. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Derbent’s commercial districts lie close to the waterfront and thus between the parallel defense walls. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. English Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it setting in a pool of murky water, and near it he found a people. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Derbent remained relatively prosperous as it changed hands from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks to the Azeris to the Mongols and Timurids, and back to the Persians over the course of seven centuries. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Oct 2018. The modern city center grew near the seafront, and it expanded rapidly in the 20th century CE. Many Jews, Georgians, and Armenians came to settle in Derbent, giving the city a cosmopolitan flavor in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Era. ", Cuneo, P. "LE MURA DI DERBENT: Note sulla topografia e la morfologia urbana di una cittaÌ€-stato del limes islamico nell'area caucasica. Although we stock standard sizes and popular styles, scrolls can b… Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. In the "Sogdian rock" he hid during the capture of the Alexander’s attacks of natural fortresses in Sogdiana. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Derbent Derbent occupies the western Caspian Sea coast, close to the mouth of Samur River in the South and Rubas River in the North, and the Sukhodol River, which forms the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969. Web. There is no iron gate there now, but there was one in 7 th century when the Chinese traveler Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. And there is no other passage to enter the lands of Samarkand except through it; nor can the inhabitants of the Samarkand Empire enter the lands of India except through this passage. (2018, October 01). 3. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. Derbent is usually identified with Albana, the capital of the ancient Albania. Related Content This clearly shows that even up till the third century of Hijrah the Muslim scholars regarded this wall of the Caucasus as the wall of Zul-Qarnain. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. How ever there was omce a Portal to this part of the Domension which is closed by Dhil Qarmain. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Iron Gate. He holds an MA in World History with a particular interest in cross-cultural exchange and world history. Derbent (English) Дербент (Russ 18, Oybek str., Tashkent, 100015, Uzbekistan. The citadel of Derbent is located upon a lofty enclosure of three slopes, and it is protected by enormous walls, which are 2.5-3.2 m (8.2-10.5 ft) thick, 10-15 m (33-49 ft) in height, and 700 m (2297 ft) in length. 3) The wall in Dagestan, Russia also known as Derbent near the Caspian sea. Enjoy Free Shipping on most stuff, even big stuff. The city’s population swelled to about 50,000, and the celebrated Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 CE) even lived in Derbent for a short duration. The Khazars - allied to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) during the Third Perso-Turkic War (627-629 CE) - attacked and seized Derbent in 627 CE. It should be noted that the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania had also acted as a vassal state to the Roman Empire on several occasions as well. Although it was taken once by the Ottoman Turks in 1583 CE following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Torches during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1590 CE), it remained in Persian hands until 1813 CE when the Russians occupied and annexed Derbent and Dagestan. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. “C” shaped scrolls 2. "Derbent." It was the Greek historian Herodotus who first mentioned Derbent's unusual geographical features in his writings about Scythian activities in the Near East; however, archaeologists working in the 1970s CE have shown that the hilltop on which Derbent's citadel now rests has been settled since the 8th century BCE. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. It is near another Derbend in Central asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south-east of Bukhara. A small town grew up around this ancient fortress in the 4th century BCE, and it is probable that the Roman general Pompey mentions this same town and fortress in the accounts of his c. 65 BCE campaign to the Caucasus. This ancient fortress, during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, was under the control of the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania, which acted as a buffer state between the Romans and the Persians. James is a writer and former Professor of History. Their emergence, which is one of the signs of the Hour. Derbent’s success as a city and importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. 4) The wall which is in the westerly direction to the third in the region of the Caucasus. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake) on its south-eastern shore. Although a devastating description of the siege and Derbent’s fall is imparted by the 10th-century CE Armenian historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi in his The History of the Country of Albania, the Khazars soon lost Derbent themselves to the Arabs c. 643 CE. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. In reality, … Originally 73 defense towers were constructed, and 46 of those were located in a portion of Derbent’s northern wall. A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore, raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. ‘Bring me blocks of iron.’ They did so till, when he had levelled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said, ‘Now blow with your bellows.’ They blew till, when he had made it red as fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper that I may pour it thereon.’ (AIBidayah Vol. One of the most interesting conclusions made by the historian Eduard Rtveladze is about the place of refuge on this territory of the father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great - Oxyart. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. “S” shaped scrolls 3. Cast Iron panels (many different designs) 6. The Arabs referred to Derbent as Bab-al-Abvab, i.e. Iron Gates of Sogdiana. Think Again, Moscow Says" -- New York Times, "How has Russiaâ€™s oldest mosque stood for 1,300 years?" Derbent’s old district contains mosques, elegant old homes, and the ruins of a medieval caravanserai. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. Gate of Gates, the Tartars, the Mongols and the Turks as Temir-Kapi, i.e. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Tuscany panels 5. Ancient History Encyclopedia. In Persian, Derbent is formed from the compound of “dar,” meaning “gate,” and “band,” meaning “knot” or “barrier.”. It was the shortest way to get from Bukhara, Samarkand and Chach (Shash) to Bactria and India, and back from India and Bactria to the Central cities of Central Asia. Thus the expected Yajooj Majooj wall location by some of the Kings in previous times was stated to be The Great Wall of China, built by the Chinese King Fagfor, almost about 3460 years after Prophet Adam was born. 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. This mountain is very high, but it has a passage through which you can cross it by a cleft that seems to have been made by human hands: high mountains rise on both sides, and it is flat and very deep.
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