Page 4) notes that a UN survey of 12 African structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) found little improvement in export earnings following such devaluation and that, since the demand for most of Africa's exports are inelastic - price fluctuations change demand very little devaluation of African currencies has led to steep declines in export revenues. Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) according to leftwitch (1996) is defined as a set of institutional and economic measures intended to solve the macroeconomic problems facing developing countries by correcting a country’s borrowing deficit, reducing the intervention of governments in the economy and opening up the state’s economy to the world market. SAPs share a common objective: to move countries away from self-directed models of national development that focus on the domestic market and toward outward-looking development models that stress the importance of complete integration into the dominant global structures of trade, finance, and production. The SAPs are supposed to allow the economies of the developing countries to become more market oriented. Cit. This perception is driven by the experience of the structural-adjustment programmes that the international financial institutions (IFIs) insisted on in the 1980s and 1990s. The U.S. should carefully examine what IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus terms “the second generation of structural reform,” which includes further neoliberal macroeconomic reforms along with good governance conditionality and measures to provide temporary relief to those impacted by SAPs. In order to improve the terms of the current loan or to get a new one, the country in … The policies are designed to tackle the root cause of the problem and provide a framework for long term development and long term growth. Good governance measures are now a criteria for the IFIs’ stamp of approval. Designed by Baker and Brady of the U.S. Treasury Department, debt-renegotiation plans also ensured that neoliberal structural adjustment became a prerequisite for debt relief. The U.S. leverages its dominant role in the global economy and in the IFIs to impose SAPs on developing countries and open their markets to competition from U.S. companies. Question. Many people consider them agencies of misery, poverty and social distress. To assist African development, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) provided “conditional lending” (Thomson, 2010: 197) – conditional, in that governments receiving debt relief were obliged to adjust their economic policy.In general, ‘adjustment’ meant liberalising and privatising, although SAPs were wider in scope in that their developmental aims were highly political. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. Loan conditions and program documents should be publicly available so that all parties are informed and accountable. Der Globalisierungskritiker Michel Chossudovsky bilanziert „Die Weltbank ist in vielen Ministerien der kreditnehmenden Länder präsent. Die sozialen Dimensionen der Strukturanpassung – eine Zwischenbilanz, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strukturanpassungsprogramm&oldid=202209219, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. In agriculture, SAPs augment the economic liberalization resulting from free trade agreements, undermining peasant agriculture while reinforcing export-oriented agribusiness (and its dependence on dangerous agrochemicals). Summary. STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME IN TANZANIA Tanzania got her independence in 1961 at that time it was under the leadership of Julius K. Nyerere, Tanzania adopted and practiced socialism even though, the country was a multi-ethnic society, all the groups were united by the language of Kiswahili introduces by Nyerere. The lender services the loan based on the assumption that certain fiscal policies will take place within the borrow- country. The debt crisis, which reached crisis proportions by 1982, gave the IFIs the leverage needed to impose SAPs on the debt-ridden countries of the South. As a result, the standard structural adjustment package advocated by the IFIs and the U.S. government fails to address a country’s individual needs, thereby generating an array of economic, social, political, and environmental problems. The neoliberal philosophy of economic development revived the old precepts of economic liberalism, which hold that an unregulated free market and private sector are the engines for unrestricted growth, the benefits of which will trickle down from the owners of capital to the entire population. The economic policies dictated by the IFIs and Washington have greatly facilitated the process of global economic integration. In addition, U.S. trade representatives began to insist on changes in other nations’ economic policies to facilitate increased U.S. trade and investment. Therefore, the conventional structural-adjustment programmes emphasised liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation. Although there may be a new dynamism in certain elite sectors, social and economic insecurity deepens for most people in countries subjected to SAPs. How do you establish it and measure it? The IMF and World Bank are expanding their loan conditions (and hence their power) to include reforms in tax, budgetary, and judicial system transparency, along with the traditional economic policies. But SAPs are driven more by neoliberal ideological principles than by objective evaluations of a country’s specific economic problems and potential. The leading role of the IMF has proven problematic in many ways. In addition, both Washington and the IFIs consistently fail to broaden the scope of SAPs to consider poverty, unemployment, the health of the domestic market, the impact of development patterns on the environment, and a government’s capacity to ensure that the benefits of economic development are equitably distributed. Since the 1980s several countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Eastern Europe have adopted structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) – loans given by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) – to overcome their economic and debt crisis. Foreign loans and aid agreements should be transparent. 30 July 2019 . But while government balance sheets may improve, SAPs have failed to establish a base for sustainable, balanced economic development. Structural adjustment is a term used to describe the policies requested by the IMF in condition for financial aid when dealing with an economic crisis in. Content under a Creative Commons Attribution licence, by Carol Welch, Friends of the Earth, and Jason Oringer, What are Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)? " ‘Structural Adjustment’ or simply ‘adjustment’, emphasises the fact that in some instances successful stabilization requires structural changes in the domestic economy, e.g. The U.S. should also encourage a major role for affected governments in crafting the terms of agreements, rather than their being regarded as the passive recipients of SAPs. Failures of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) in Sub-Saharan Africa In this section, I will critically carry out an in-depth analysis of the fundamental shortcomings of the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) by carefully looking into the critical aspects of the SAPs and how they relate to the social, economic and political weakening of Sub-Saharan Africa. The result can be increasing political instability (such as riots over food prices), outbreaks of guerrilla violence, and widespread disaffection with (and nonparticipation in) electoral political systems. The U.S. plays a fundamental role in designing and financing structural adjustment programs of the main IFIs, namely the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as those of the regional multilateral banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Although governance stipulations (such as increased budgetary transparency and judicial reform) may be positive changes, they place an added burden on countries and increase the power of Washington and the IFIs to dictate policy in the South. In seinem Buch Die Schatten der Globalisierung betont er, dass das Vorgehen des IWF für die Entwicklung der Länder des Südens nicht förderlich, sondern sogar schädlich (gewesen) sei. liegen in ihrer Zuständigkeit.“. Ekei Etim (op. The structural adjustment program is essentially a conditional loan. The weak state of the domestic market exacerbates the worsening socioeconomic conditions. reallocation of resources between sectors, changes in the distribution of income and institutional reform. Yet SAPs are largely imposed on developing countries without sufficient input from the very sectors of society that will be subjected to them. ESAP is a top-down economic strategy which is designed to resuscitate an economy using massive doses of foreign exchange (acquired mostly through loans) and hugely increased … Layoffs of government workers, wage constraints, higher interest rates, reduced government spending, and the shutdown of domestic industries all contribute to the shrinking of the domestic market. Die dort durchgeführten Reformen in Gesundheit, Bildung, Industrie, Landwirtschaft, Verkehr, Umwelt usw. A structural adjustment program is a plan implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a developing nation to try to get their economies to be more productive. These changes brought economic incentives more into line with the country's underlying comparative advantage. While the name has changed, with PRSPs, the World Bank is still forcing countries to adopt the same types of policies as SAPs. In its insistence on the promotion of the private sector, Washington fails to recognize the fundamental importance of government regulations and safety nets in fostering and maintaining economic development. The U.S. should broaden the focus of its foreign economic policy away from the narrow and misplaced objectives of SAPs to give more consideration to other issues such as sustainable growth, equitable distribution, employment generation, and community development. Strukturanpassungsprogramm (SAP, englisch: Structural Adjustment Program, von der Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – deshalb auch ESAF-Program) bezeichnet wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, die vom Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) und der Weltbank als Bedingung für die Vergabe von Krediten oder den Schuldenerlass im Rahmen der HIPC-Initiative verlangt werden. They generally entail severe reductions in government spending and employment, higher interest rates, currency devaluation, lower real wages, sale of government enterprises, reduced tariffs, and liberalization of foreign investment regulations. Conditions and terms of all lending should be stated publicly so that the recipient country’s citizenry is fully aware of the potential impact of lending agreements. Furthermore, U.S. and IFI debt-relief programs should be delinked from SAP conditionalities. Increased unemployment and decreased government services are the most direct blows, but changes in the tax system often emphasize easy-to-collect, regressive sales taxes that also disproportionately affect the lower classes. Yet in many cases the GDP growth of countries undergoing structural adjustment is stagnant. April 1, 1998. Largely championed by the Reagan administration and Margaret Thatcher’s government in Britain, the neoliberal principles that shape SAPs gained prominence in the IFIs in the 1980s. The World Bank recently launched a historic initiative to encourage such participation, working with civil society groups in several countries to assess the impact of SAPs (see SAPRI under Sources for More Information). Understandably, the World Bank maintains that its structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) have been ‘successful’. Unfortunately, the U.S. has not exercised its leadership responsibly. Other recommendations for a more responsible U.S. foreign policy include the following: Issues: Democracy & Governance, Labor, Trade, & Finance, Women, Foreign Policy In Focus - A project of the Institute for Policy Studies Structural Adjustment A government program in a developing country making changes to economic or monetary policies in order to better facilitate growth. Structural adjustment programs were sponsored by the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) and ubiquitously included capital account and trade openness, devaluation, a reduction in the public sector and privatization of publicly owned companies. Thus, reforms intended to open countries to foreign trade, investment, and finance may result in increased exports and greater access to foreign capital, but they also heighten financial volatility and speculative investment, flood the affected countries with imported luxury goods, undermine local industry, and constrict local buying power. Structural adjustment programs (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experience extensive economic crises. Structural Adjustment Policies: Main Features and Social Implications Political conditionality was used to link adherence to the programs with the successful receipt of development finance and loans. These claims are made sometimes more stridently, sometimes more cautiously and with qualifications. Kritisiert werden die Strukturanpassungsprogramme auch von dem US-amerikanischen Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und Nobelpreisträger Joseph E. Stiglitz. As SAPs guide how money is spent, they are supposed to ensure good use of development funds. The most recent change in SAPs is the IFIs’ promotion of good governance. Interhemispheric Resource Center, AIDS and Developing Countries: Facilitating Access to Essential Medicines, Economic Debacle In Argentina: The IMF Strikes Again. Formulated as loan conditions by Northern governments and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs), SAPs mandate macroeconomic policy changes that obligate recipient nations to liberalize their trade and investment policies. Tightened credit requirements and higher interest rates make it virtually impossible for small farmers and businesses to invest. The Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are created with the goal of reducing the borrowing country’s fiscal imbalances. For example, a structural adjustment loan may include a stipulation that the borrowing country relax any protectionist subsidies or impose higher taxes to balance the budget. The bank from which a borrowing country receives its loan depends upon the type of necessity. With the waning of North-South private capital flows, indebted countries became increasingly dependent on the IFIs, which conditioned new lending on the implementation of SAPs. IMF Lending to Poor Countries—How does the PRGF differ from the ESAF? Structural Adjustment Programs have been adopted by Kenya since the late 1980s along IMF-WB lines in order to solve the problems of growing foreign debt, fiscal and balance of payments (BOP) deficits, shortage of foreign exchange, stagnant productive sectors (especially the export-oriented sectors), and rising levels of unemployment. This new programming—called neostructuralism by some analysts—reduces the social and political impact of SAPs through temporary job programs and other relief measures. But what does ‘successful’ mean? SAPs are based on a short-term, profit-maximization model that perpetuates poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation. Structural Adjustment Programs typically include a lot of different policies which interact with each other. The U.S. plays a fundamental role in designing and financing structural adjustment programs of the main IFIs, namely the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as those of the regional multilateral banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). But the IFIs only tend to adopt neostructuralist programs of social investment after the dirty work of neoliberal structural adjustment has been mostly completed. Starting in the 1980s, the U.S. also routinely began conditioning its aid agreements on acceptance of a package of economic reforms and adherence to the prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. A structural adjustment is set of economic reforms that a country must adhere to in order to secure a loan from the International Monetary Fund and/or the World Bank. The implementation of the SAPs, it is claimed, has arrested Ghana's economy from complete collapse, resulted in consistent growth in GDP averaging 6% over the past decade, reduced inflation levels, created budget surplus, and increased export earnings. Few would deny that such problems as persistent budget deficits, inefficient and ineffective government enterprises, and rapid inflation require reforms. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. Likewise their late concern for good governance only surfaces after successive SAPs have already dismantled many important state institutions and continue to undermine the ability of governments to exercise control over national economic development. SAPs benefit a narrow stratum of the private sector—mostly those involved in export production, trade brokering, and portfolio finance. A narrow elite in countries undergoing SAPs do benefit from restructuring and increased integration, but the main beneficiaries are foreign investors and traders. At the World Bank, new leadership installed by the U.S. (which traditionally appoints the president of the World Bank) touted SAPs as comprehensive, long-term solutions for debtor nations. These winners are usually well-connected elites and transnational companies. The underlying structural reasons for poverty, unemployment, and malnourishment are left unaddressed. Juli 2020 um 19:26 Uhr bearbeitet. Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. Even when a SAP-directed economy is growing, it is generally failing to create employment and generate the revenues needed to pay for the unregulated influx of foreign imports. In Africa, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank do not have a good reputation. Washington’s foreign policy should encourage sustainable, equitable development that benefits local people rather than international traders and financiers. The U.S. could choose to spearhead an effort to shift the focus of structural adjustment. It managed seven structural adjustment programs—covering the automotive industry, Arrium, Alinta, BlueScope Steel, Caterpillar, Queensland Nickel After decades of subverting populist and interventionist central governments, the IFIs have recently accepted some of the criticisms leveled against their neoliberal notions of a minimalist state. The country in need (the borrower) approaches the IMF and World Bank (the lenders) for a loan. Jason Oringer, Carol Welch, The term "Structural Adjustment Program" has gained such a negative connotation that the World Bank and IMF launched a new initiative, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative, and makes countries develop Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. In this latter regard, SAPs have been successful. The growth that does occur is commonly limited to a few sectors like raw materials extraction or goods produced with cheap labor, instead of a more well-rounded and sustainable growth in production. The emphasis placed by SAPs on increased exports can hasten the destruction of ecosystems by accelerating extractive enterprises such as the timber, mining, and fishing industries. Diese Wegbereiter zur von Weltbank, WHO und IWF verlangten Good Governance nötigten bittstellenden Staaten nicht selten einige ihrer Souveränitätsrechte ab. Through its financial clout in the IFIs, its central role in shaping global economic integration, and its own bilateral lending programs, Washington has the power to change or eliminate SAPs. SAPs have also largely succeeded inshrinking government budget deficits, eliminating hyperinflation, and maintaining debt-payment schedules. SAPs are broadly imposed on nearly all developing countries, while the North only selectively adheres to its own neoliberal principles. Overwhelming debt burdens, often resulting from poorly conceived development projects and North-imposed SAPs, prevent governments from retaining revenue and dedicating sufficient resources to health, education, the environment, and community development. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOREWORD Under the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) introduced in 1986, Nigeria reformed its foreign exchange system, trade policies, and business and agricultural regulations. Though macroeconomic factors need not be excluded from Washington’s policies, they should be part of a broader definition of U.S. national interests overseas and should encompass more than simply facilitating U.S. trade and investment. Title: 2015 World Bank Group / International Monetary Fund Spring Meetings. Citizen participation in all stages of IFI lending—from planning and defining the scope of projects to implementation and evaluation—should be standard. By Eine Studie des Entwicklungsökonomen William Easterly konnte keinen positiven Effekt von Strukturanpassungsprogrammen auf Wirtschaftswachstum finden.. Washington should insist that all potentially affected sectors of the debtor country’s society are represented in the negotiating processes. Since 1983, Ghana has been undergoing World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). The liberalization of trade does make imported items less expensive, but most people in low-income countries consume little besides basic necessities. The most important change the U.S. could initiate is to make binational and multinational financial agreements a more inclusive and open process. In their wake, SAPs have bankrupted local industries, increased dependency on food imports, gutted social services, and fostered a widening gap between rich and poor.
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