They prefer wet, mossy, sub-alpine vegetation. Great spotted kiwi receive little active management, and although some populations in upland wet areas appear to be stable, those in lowland and drier areas are assumed to be declining gradually.  At most, four to five kiwis live in a square kilometre. This is different to little spotted kiwi, where the chicks are completely independent at less than two months of age. Published: November 3, 2016 Updated: November 3, 2016. Great spotted kiwi breed between June and March. The table below shows the estimated great spotted kiwi population in 2008 and 2015, and what it could be in 15 years time.  Males are fiercely territorial. With an estimated population of 14,000, its future is far from secure with an estimated decline rate of 2%p.a. Great Spotted Kiwi are fiercely territorial and will aggressively defend their territory. Where they live mainly in high, often harsh, hill country. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). For these reasons, researchers say it is not valid to assume the issues facing North Island brown kiwi are having the same impact on great spotted kiwi. It is thought great spotted kiwi have been in part protected by the high altitudes they live in.  Kiwis will also swallow small stones, which aid in digestion. Haast. The egg has a smooth, thin, white or greenish-white shell and is about 120mm long and 80mm in diameter, this is six times as large as it would be for a normal bird of this weight. The birds also generally mate for life, though divorces do sometimes happen. It stands at 45- 50 cm tall; and can be seen from, its brownish grey finely speckled feathers with a horizontal banding pattern with white. , Great spotted kiwis are monogamous, with pairings sometimes lasting twenty years. Kiwis Diet. Adult birds are also often attacked by dogs and ferrets. Habitat The great spotted kiwi once did live in numerous places throughout the south island but because pests were introduced to New Zealand the remaining kiwis were restricted to 3 localities. Great spotted kiwis reach full size at year six. These birds live in tussock grasslands, scrubland, pasture, and forests.  Females must rely on fat stored from the previous five months to survive. The egg is the largest of all birds in proportion to the size of the bird. Their flightless feature also restricts them to their native land. This species resides in elevated regions, unlike other categories of kiwi. On les trouve sur les sommets enneigés, dans les forêts de montagne, les alpages touffus situés à l'ouest de la principale ligne de partage des eaux, de la baie de la Tasmanie jusqu'au sud … Questions? , The great spotted kiwi is nocturnal in behaviour. They live in North West nelson, central Westland and eastern Canterbury.  As they are nocturnal, they do not emerge until thirty minutes after sunset to begin the hunt. , The great spotted kiwi was first described as Apteryx haastii by Thomas Potts, in 1872, based on a specimen from Westland, New Zealand. U Up to fifty burrows can exist in one bird's territory." Some adaptations include: freeze resistance of invertebrates, dark colouration for heat retention, flightlessness and omnivorous diets.  Before the arrival of mammalian predators, the great spotted kiwi's natural predators would have been birds of prey like the extinct Haast's eagle and Eyles' harrier and the extant Swamp harrier. That is, the birds live in beech forest, which is unlike most North Island kiwi habitat. However, most years are non-mast years, and there are much fewer predators around. Great spotted kiwi have disappeared from many lowland sites around the fringes of their distribution, and from the Grey Valley, presumably through a combination of habitat loss and predation by mammalian predators, especially dogs and stoats. Populations are present from northwestern Nelson to the Buller River, the northwest coast (Hurunui River to Arthur's Pass), and the Paparoa Range, as well as within the Lake Rotoiti Mainland Island. The kiwi lives in the native bush of New Zealand. The harsh conditions make it tough going for the dogs, cats, ferrets and stoats that would otherwise prey on them. At night, they come out to feed.  The great spotted kiwi, along with the other kiwi species, is the only bird with nostrils at the end of its bill. Both parents are often in the nest at the same time.  Humans have also endangered the species by destroying their habitat by logging forests and building mines. Nonetheless, there has been a 43% decline in population in the past 45 years, due to these predators and habitat destruction. Of the estimated population of 14,800 birds, 12.6% are under active management. Indigenous forest and shrubland are the main habitats and rough farmland is also visited. Because the birds are still numerous, research effort has instead been concentrated on species that are in serious trouble – such as rowi and Haast tokoeka. Why are kiwis going extinct? The natural kiwi habitat stretches across New Zealand. Kiwis are being driven to extinction by three main threats – predators, lost habitat and people. Most birds have only one. Finally, Little Spotted Species population live on various small islands and regions in the norther… Northwest Nelson birds are released into the Rotoiti mainland island, to build up the genetic diversity of that population.  The kiwi genus, Apteryx, is endemic to New Zealand; 44% of the bird species native to New Zealand are endemic. They are confined to four distinct regions, Northwest Nelson, Paparoa Range, Arthurs Pass, and the Nelson Lakes National Park. Great spotted kiwi do not feed their chick. The Great Spotted is found only in the south island mostly in North West Nelson, Central Westland and Eastern Canterbury. A kiwi is about the size of a chicken. They are present from northwestern Nelson to the Buller River, the northwest coast (Hurunui River to Arthur's Pass), and the Paparoa Range, as well as within the Lake Rotoiti Mainland Island.  These kiwi live in higher altitude areas.  It has more of an advantage than other kiwi species over these predators because it lives in high altitude areas, where the wet upland population thrives. It is the largest of the Kiwi family. Unlike most birds, female great spotted kiwis have two ovaries. , Because adult great spotted kiwis are large and powerful, they are able to fend off most predators that attack them, such as stoats, ferrets, weasels, pigs, brush possums and cats, all of which are invasive species in New Zealand. Vocalisations of the great spotted kiwi include growls, hisses, and bill snapping. They can also be found in rough farmlands, tussock grasslands, plantations, mountains, and sand dunes. The pair mates about two to three times during peak activity. As with other kiwi species, great spotted kiwi pairs have only one mate at a time. The Okarito species inhabits just a small area on the western coast of the South Island. Kiwi bird – diet, habitat, species and size with pictures. Great spotted kiwis are distinguishable from other kiwi species by the fact that they can only produce one egg a year, as it takes so much energy to produce the massive egg. After ten days, chicks venture out of the burrow to hunt. (0.8 to 1.9 kg).  They will call, chase, or fight intruders out. Southern brown kiwi are threatened by the habitat loss and by predation from Brush-tailed possums, stoats, and cats that eat the eggs, chicks, and juveniles. The Southern Alps population is particularly isolated.  The main threat is from invasive predators including mustelids, brush-tailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula, feral cats, dogs and pigs The most threatened populations are in the southern areas of the species' range. Common Kiwis live along the southeast coast of the South Island, and on Stewart Island. These burrows are complex, sometimes like a maze, with more than one entrance and exit. However, dogs are able to kill even adults. It grows up to 14 to 18 inches (35 to 45 cm) and weighs 4.3 lbs. Starting & maintaining a community project. This is because of their rapidly depleting habitat, which has forced them to find living places elsewhere. Male very loud shrill warbling whistle; female slower and lower-pitched ascending warble; calls more powerful and slower than Little Spotted Kiwi.  The gestation period is about a month. They love to hide in bushes and farmlands. It takes 75 to 85 days for the egg to hatch. Great spotted kiwi males chase females around until the females either run off or mate. Average lifespan is 30 to 40 years. These kiwis will live in tussock grasslands, scrubland, pasture, and forests. Some birds are killed by cars on roads in Arthur’s Pass and in the Buller gorge, and one was killed by a train, but these deaths are relatively small in number. The egg is usually about 20-25% of her body mass, so when the egg is produced, there is little room left in her body for much else. , The genus name, Apteryx, comes from the Ancient Greek words a "without" or "no", and pteryx, "wing" and haasti is the Latin form of the last name of Sir Julius von Haast. 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